Hypertension: Blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg.
COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a catch-all term for a number of respiratory diseases. The diseases of COPD include chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, asthma and bronchiectasis (a chronic inflammatory or degenerative condition of one or more bronchi or bronchioles marked by dilatation and loss of elasticity of the walls).
Asthma: Hyper-responsive airways manifested by a narrowing of the airway.
Sleep Apnea: a breathing disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep.
1. Central Sleep Apnea: Occurs when the brain fails to send the appropriate signals to the breathing muscles to initiate respirations.
2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Occurs when air cannot flow into or out of the person's nose or mouth, although efforts to breath continue.
Diabetes: Disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal
1. Type 1 diabetes: diabetes of a form that usually develops during childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a severe deficiency of insulin secretion resulting from atrophy of the islets of Langerhans and causing hyperglycemia and a marked tendency toward ketoacidosis -- called also insulin-dependent diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes mellitus
2. Type 2 diabetes: a common form that develops especially in adults and most often in obese individuals and that is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body's inability to compensate with increased insulin production -- called also adult-onset diabetes, late-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus
CHF: heart failure in which the heart is unable to maintain adequate circulation of blood in the tissues of the body or to pump out the venous blood returned to it by the venous circulation
Urinary Incontinence: Incontinence is the inability to control the passage of urine. This can range from an occasional leakage of urine, to a complete inability to hold any urine. Urinary incontinence affects approximately 13 million people in the United States and is more common in women than in men. It occurs in 10 percent to 25 percent of women younger than age 65 and in 15 percent to 30 percent of women older than age 60 who do not live in nursing homes. Among nursing home residents, incontinence is even more common, affecting more than 50 percent of female patients.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF): a life-threatening disorder that causes severe lung damage and nutritional deficiencies. CF is an inherited (genetic) condition affecting the cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva and digestive juices. Normally, these secretions are thin and slippery, but in CF, a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the pancreas and lungs. Respiratory failure is the most dangerous consequence of CF. Each year approximately 3,200 white babies are born in the United States with CF. The disease is much less common among black and Asian-American children. Most babies born with CF are diagnosed by age 3, although mild forms of the disease may not be detected until the third, fourth or fifth decade of life. In all, about 30,000 American adults and children are living with the disorder. Although there's still no cure, the emerging field of gene therapy may someday help correct lung problems in people with CF.
Hepatitis C HCV (Hepatitis C Virus): is an inflammation of the liver causing soreness and swelling. It is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United States. The hepatitis C virus usually is transmitted through contact with infected blood, most commonly by sharing needles during intravenous drug use, or getting a blood transfusion before 1992. Hepatitis C also may be spread through unprotected sexual intercourse, but this is uncommon. Most people don't feel sick when they are first infected with hepatitis C. Instead, the virus stays in their liver and causes chronic liver inflammation.
Multiple Sclerosis: is a chronic, potentially debilitating disease that affects your brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). The illness is probably an autoimmune disease, which means your immune system responds as if part of your body is a foreign substance.In MS, your body directs antibodies and white blood cells against proteins in the myelin sheath surrounding nerves in your brain and spinal cord. This causes inflammation and injury to the sheath and ultimately to your nerves. The result may be multiple areas of scarring (sclerosis). The damage slows or blocks muscle coordination, visual sensation and other nerve signals.The disease varies in severity, ranging from a mild illness to one that results in permanent disability. Treatments can modify the course of the disease and relieve symptoms.An estimated 400,000 Americans have MS. It generally first occurs in people between the ages of 20 and 50. The disease is twice as common in women as in men.
Muscular Dystrophy: is a group of rare inherited muscle diseases in which muscle fibers are unusually susceptible to damage. Muscles, primarily your voluntary muscles, become progressively weaker. In the late stages of muscular dystrophy, fat and connective tissue often replace muscle fibers. In some types of muscular dystrophy, heart muscles, other involuntary muscles and other organs are affected. There are many forms of muscular dystrophy, some noticeable at birth (congenital muscular dystrophy), others in adolescence (Becker MD), but the 3 most common types are Duchenne, facioscapulohumeral, and myotonic. The various types of the disease affect more than 50,000 Americans. There's no cure, but medications and therapy can slow the course of the disease.
Osteoporosis: is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced, leading to weakness of the skeleton and increased risk of fracture, particularly of the spine, wrist, hip, pelvis and upper arm. Osteoporosis and associated fractures are an important cause of mortality and morbidity.
In many affected people, bone loss is gradual and without warning signs until the disease is advanced. Osteoporosis is also known as "the silent crippler" because a person usually doesn't know they have it until it's too late. Unfortunately, in many cases, the first real "symptom" is a broken bone. Loss of height - with gradual curvature of the back (caused by vertebral compression fractures) may be the only physical sign of osteoporosis.
In the United States, osteoporosis causes more than 1.5 million fractures every year - most of them in the spine, hip or wrist. And although it's often thought of as a women's disease, osteoporosis affects many men as well. About 8 million American women and 2 million American men have osteoporosis, and nearly 18 million more Americans may have low bone density. Even children aren't immune.
Parkinson's Disease: Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. It is both chronic, meaning it persists over a long period of time, and progressive, meaning its symptoms grow worse over time.
Parkinson's disease occurs when a group of cells, in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra, that produce a chemical called dopamine begin to malfunction and eventually die. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, or chemical messenger, that transports signals to the parts of the brain that control movement initiation and coordination. When Parkinson's disease occurs, for unexplained reasons, these cells begin to die at a faster rate and the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases. The four primary symptoms are:
* tremor of the hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face;
* rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk;
* bradykinesia or slowness of movement, and
* postural instability or impaired balance and coordination.
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